Battery and Energy Technologies

Updated 8 January c Introduction In a related article on geologic ages Ages , we presented a chart with the various geologic eras and their ages. In a separate article Radiometric dating , we sketched in some technical detail how these dates are calculated using radiometric dating techniques. As we pointed out in these two articles, radiometric dates are based on known rates of radioactivity, a phenomenon that is rooted in fundamental laws of physics and follows simple mathematical formulas. Dating schemes based on rates of radioactivity have been refined and scrutinized for several decades. The latest high-tech equipment permits reliable results to be obtained even with microscopic samples. Radiometric dating is self-checking, because the data after certain preliminary calculations are made are fitted to a straight line an “isochron” by means of standard linear regression methods of statistics. The slope of the line determines the date, and the closeness of fit is a measure of the statistical reliability of the resulting date.

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Let’s start the story with the most prominent feature of the field today–its very rapid decay. By estimating the field intensity everywhere in, on, and above the earth , we can calculate the total electrical “energy” stored in the field. This rapid decay of both energy and intensity was not widely known, even among scientists, until Dr. Thomas Barnes, a creationist physicist, began publicizing it in

Archaeomagnetic datingdating archaeological and geological materials by comparing their magnetic data with known changes in the earth’s magnetic field—has proved to be of increasing reliability in establishing behavioral and social referents of archaeological data. Now this volume presents the.

All methods don’t give the same dates. In fact, the opposite is true. Various methods give numbers all over the board. The ones that are closest to the “accepted” dates are considered to be the useful methods for that particular sample. Other methods that don’t match at all are considered to be the wrong type of test for that sample. I believe you have a misunderstanding of what I said. I’ll elaborate a bit more. Most rocks contain more than one radionuclide which can be used for determining a date.

Those nuclides which have a half-life that lend themselves within the age of the sample can be independently determined. Knowing that I have confirmed the general date of the rock, I could also employ other methods that lend themselves to that date range. Some of those would be Electron Spin Resonance and Fission tracking. What I could not use would be Lead or Caesium because those methods do not lend themselves to that date range.

You may be used to reading about matching methods.

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This is how carbon dating works: Carbon is a naturally abundant element found in the atmosphere, in the earth, in the oceans, and in every living creature. C is by far the most common isotope, while only about one in a trillion carbon atoms is C C is produced in the upper atmosphere when nitrogen N is altered through the effects of cosmic radiation bombardment a proton is displaced by a neutron effectively changing the nitrogen atom into a carbon isotope.

The new isotope is called “radiocarbon” because it is radioactive, though it is not dangerous.

Reliability of paleomagnetic dating The technique described in this study produces ages that are of the same order of magnitude as many isotopic dating techniques. This will allow paleomagnetic dates to meaningfully contribute to geochronologic studies.

History of Technology Heroes and Villains – A little light reading Here you will find a brief history of technology. Initially inspired by the development of batteries, it covers technology in general and includes some interesting little known, or long forgotten, facts as well as a few myths about the development of technology, the science behind it, the context in which it occurred and the deeds of the many personalities, eccentrics and charlatans involved. You may find the Search Engine , the Technology Timeline or the Hall of Fame quicker if you are looking for something or somebody in particular.

Scroll down and see what treasures you can discover. Background We think of a battery today as a source of portable power, but it is no exaggeration to say that the battery is one of the most important inventions in the history of mankind. Volta’s pile was at first a technical curiosity but this new electrochemical phenomenon very quickly opened the door to new branches of both physics and chemistry and a myriad of discoveries, inventions and applications. The electronics, computers and communications industries, power engineering and much of the chemical industry of today were founded on discoveries made possible by the battery.

Pioneers It is often overlooked that throughout the nineteenth century, most of the electrical experimenters, inventors and engineers who made these advances possible had to make their own batteries before they could start their investigations. They did not have the benefit of cheap, off the shelf, mass produced batteries. For many years the telegraph, and later the telephone, industries were the only consumers of batteries in modest volumes and it wasn’t until the twentieth century that new applications created the demand that made the battery a commodity item.

In recent years batteries have changed out of all recognition. No longer are they simple electrochemical cells.

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Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Principles of isotopic dating All absolute isotopic ages are based on radioactive decay , a process whereby a specific atom or isotope is converted into another specific atom or isotope at a constant and known rate. Most elements exist in different atomic forms that are identical in their chemical properties but differ in the number of neutral particles—i. For a single element, these atoms are called isotopes.

Even before the bristlecone pine calibration of C dating was worked out by Ferguson, Bucha predicted that this change in the magnetic field would make radiocarbon dates too young.

These three are generally found together in mixtures, and each one decays into several daughter products such as radium before becoming lead. This is very possible, and even likely. It is only an assumption that integral or adjacent lead could only be an end product. In addition, common lead lead , which has no radioactive parent, could easily be mixed into the sample and would seriously affect the dating of that sample.

When a uranium sample is tested for dating purposes, it is assumed that the entire quantity of lead in it is “daughter-product lead” that is, the end-product of the decayed uranium. The specimen is not carefully and thoroughly checked for possible common lead content, because it is such a time-consuming task.

Electron spin resonance dating

See this page in: Hungarian , Russian , Spanish People who ask about carbon 14C dating usually want to know about the radiometric [1] dating methods that are claimed to give millions and billions of years—carbon dating can only give thousands of years. People wonder how millions of years could be squeezed into the biblical account of history.

In general I would put a slight reliability edge on SSD for mobile devices and a slight edge on HDD for desktop/server devices. We see failed SSD drives in the data recovery lab in proportion with their percentage of the storage market three years ago.

Carbon 14 is used for this example: This nullifies the carbon method as well as demonstrating that the earth is less than 10, years old. The above is offered as a simple fact of research. Knowing how faulty creationist “facts” can be, let’s do a little research of our own. One suspects that the scientific world would not be using the carbon method if it were so obviously flawed.

Could it be that the whole scientific community has missed this point, or is it another case of creationist daydreaming? This argument was popularized by Henry Morris , p. In another creationist, Robert L. Whitelaw, using a greater ratio of carbon production to decay, concluded that only years passed since carbon started forming in the atmosphere! The argument may be compared to filling a barrel which has numerous small holes in its sides.

We stick the garden hose in and turn it on full blast. The water coming out of the hose is analogous to the continuous production of carbon atoms in the upper atmosphere. The barrel represents the earth’s atmosphere in which the carbon accumulates.

Wind Turbines Shed Their Gears

The following article is primarily based on a discussion of radiocarbon dating found in The Biblical Chronologist Volume 5, Number 1. Full details and references can be found there. Radiocarbon dating is based on a few relatively simple principles.

The term “archaeo-magnetic dating” refers to the archaeological dating methods that are based on secular variation of the geomagnetic field. It has been used specifically for the dating method based on secular variation of direction using baked clay samples.

The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years.

We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods. We are told that of all the radiometric dates that are measured, only a few percent are anomalous. This gives us the impression that all but a small percentage of the dates computed by radiometric methods agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found, and that all of these various methods almost always give ages that agree with each other to within a few percentage points.

Since there doesn’t seem to be any systematic error that could cause so many methods to agree with each other so often, it seems that there is no other rational conclusion than to accept these dates as accurate. However, this causes a problem for those who believe based on the Bible that life has only existed on the earth for a few thousand years, since fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be over million years old by radiometric methods, and some fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be billions of years old.

If these dates are correct, this calls the Biblical account of a recent creation of life into question. After study and discussion of this question, I now believe that the claimed accuracy of radiometric dating methods is a result of a great misunderstanding of the data, and that the various methods hardly ever agree with each other, and often do not agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found.

I believe that there is a great need for this information to be made known, so I am making this article available in the hopes that it will enlighten others who are considering these questions. Even the creationist accounts that I have read do not adequately treat these issues. At the start, let me clarify that my main concern is not the age of the earth, the moon, or the solar system, but rather the age of life, that is, how long has life existed on earth.

Many dating methods seem to give about the same ages on meteorites. Thus radiometric dating methods appear to give evidence that the earth and meteorites are old, if one accepts the fact that decay rates have been constant.

Answers to Creationist Attacks on Carbon-14 Dating

At the time that Darwin’s On the Origin of Species was published, the earth was “scientifically” determined to be million years old. By , it was found to be 1. In , science firmly established that the earth was 3. Finally in , it was discovered that the earth is “really” 4.

Scientists use a technique called radiometric dating to estimate the ages of rocks, fossils, and the earth. Many people have been led to believe that radiometric dating methods have proved the earth to be billions of years old.

I would like to read the report if available. Yeah, you better stop drinking that weed killer. People in the blogosphere say a lot of things we know to be true. The atmosphere is mostly nitrogen followed by oxygen, followed by the real primary greenhouse gas, water vapor. The sun will appear to rise tomorrow. Further, orbital variations may have settled into a pattern that lends itself to reduced climate change.

You can read all the cited links as well.

How Old is the Earth

How long has this planet been here? Ask most Christians this question and you will likely receive a quick, self-assured answer. All would be well if you could count on receiving the same answer! However, some will very quickly tell you that the earth was created during creation week and can be no more than six to ten thousand years old. Other Christians will tell you, with just as much confidence, that the earth is 4.

Electron Spin Resonance Dating, or ESR dating, is a technique used to date newly formed materials, which Radiocarbon dating cannot, like carbonates, tooth enamel, or materials that have been previously heated like igneous rock.

This three-megawatt wind turbine uses permanent magnets and a design that makes it significantly lighter than a conventional geared turbine. Siemens has begun selling a three-megawatt turbine using a so-called direct-drive system that replaces the conventional high-speed generator with a low-speed generator that eliminates the need for a gearbox.

And last month, General Electric announced an investment of million euros in manufacturing facilities to build its own four-megawatt direct-drive turbines for offshore wind farms. He says Siemens is adopting direct-drive as a means of generating more energy at lower cost. In conventional wind turbines, the gearbox increases the speed of the wind-driven rotor several hundred fold, which radically reduces the size of the generator required.

Conventional turbine generators use electromagnets—copper coils fed with electricity from the generator itself. Siemens erected a prototype of its machine in Brande, Denmark, in December and plans to install 10 more this year, primarily in Denmark, before beginning mass production in More competition is on the way. The firm was founded in December by Sandy Butterfield, who was chief engineer for the U. Whether gearbox failures are an industrywide problem remains a matter of some contention.

NREL initiated its study in , when there were several failures: A analysis of Siemens machines installed from to in the U.

Accuracy of dating rocks